Top 15 Companies Developing COVID-19 Vaccines [Worldwide]

0

Freelance scientific writer Erica Tramuta-Drobnis provides a detailed overview of the global companies developing COVID-19 vaccines. Erica is VMD, MPH, CPH; CEO/Founder ELTD One Health Consulting, LLC and can be consulted on Kolabtree

Introduction

According to the World Health Organization (WHO),1 as of April 4, 2021, cases and deaths globally continue to climb secondary to the COVID-19 or SARS-CoV-2 pandemic. The WHO recorded over four million cases in the week of April 4, 2021, with an 11% increase in the death toll.[1] Now more than ever, the development and distribution of vaccinations are paramount. To achieve an end or at least to establish sufficient herd immunity that society can return to what will become our new normal.

Herd immunity, defined by WHO, is “also known as ‘population immunity’.” It “is the indirect protection from an infectious disease that happens when a population is immune either through vaccination or immunity developed through previous infection.” [2] It will be the key to returning the world’s population to some semblance of the previous ‘normal.’

The COVID-19 Vaccine Race and Emergency Use Authorization (EUA)

Vaccinations against infectious diseases revolutionized public health and modern medicine. They helped take us from the dark ages to a new era of health and prosperity. [3–5]

During this pandemic, the rapidity at which vaccines have been developed for use globally is unprecedented. Though no vaccine has been given full authorization by any governing body, Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) status has been authorized for several vaccines in record time.[6]

Typically, vaccines take years to develop. Often well over 15 years or more5 from the time research and development (R&D) begins until the time of use outside of clinical trials. However, candidate COVID-19 vaccines started clinical trials in under 6-months and were released provisionally in 10-months. [5,7,8]

As of April 6, 2021, WHO data described 86 COVID-19 vaccines in various clinical development stages, with another 186 in the pre-clinical stages.[9] More vaccines enter development phases as others enter or progress through the various clinical trials.  Thus, vaccine R&D has taken place globally in numerous countries with an unprecedented amount of cooperation among nations, companies, private and public entities, and government agencies.

What is EUA?

Globally, this is the first time that WHO and individual nations have approved vaccinations without completing standard full-scale approval processes.

We live in unprecedented times, and this calls for exceptional measures. Suppose we hope to make a dent in the transmission and subsequent infections and deaths caused by this virus. In that case, vaccinations need to be timely, evenly, and well distributed globally. To do so requires their use before completing phase III clinical trials or follow-up studies.

Profiling 15 vaccines in active development

As of April 19, 2021, per the CDC10(p19), all Americans over sixteen are now eligible for COVID-19 vaccination. To ensure we have sufficient vaccines, we need to evaluate what is out there and on the horizon.

Here we will discuss 15 of the top candidates for COVID-19 vaccines, both authorized for use and those in advanced clinical trial stages. The selected 15 in no way represent support of use or reflect any financial or political interest in the vaccines. To date, 13 vaccines are approved for use worldwide. [11]

Selection criteria were selected based on available data and resources. Collectively, consensus about the efficacy, advancement levels of the vaccines, and scientific research and backing for these vaccines predominated in research to date, leading to selection criteria alone.

EUA Approved vaccines by the WHO

As of April 1, 2021, Craven’s COVID-19 vaccine tracker12 lists only 3 vaccines recognized by the WHO as authorized for approval for emergency use. These include the Pfizer/BioNTech, the AstraZeneca (AzD1222), and COVID-19 Vaccine by Janssen. See below for further details.

EUA Approved vaccines in the U.S. and globally

Vaccines #1-3 are listed in the order in which they were approved for use.5,11–20 While efficacy against widespread clinical disease varies among the three, all were highly efficacious in preventing hospitalizations and deaths. [21]

Several vaccine manufacturers described below, marked with an *, signed a COVID-19 pledge, seen here. [22]

Note IM = Intramuscular Injection, ID = Intradermal

Top 15 companies developing COVID-19 vaccines

1. Pfizer*/BioNTech SE*

Pfizer/BioNTech COVID-19 specific information can be found at https://www.cvdvaccine.com/ and https://www.pfizer.com/science/coronavirus.

Pfizer, as a company, states that “their purpose is grounded in our commitment to fund programs that provide public benefit, advance medical care and improve patient outcomes. Our belief is that all people deserve to live healthy lives. This drives our desire to provide access to medicines that are safe, effective, and affordable [23]” .

BioNTech SE, based in Germany, worked in collaboration with Pfizer to create one of the first COVID-19 vaccines granted EUA. They “aspire to utilize the full potential of the immune system to fight cancer and infectious diseases”. [24]

Cooperatively, these two developed the ‘Pfizer’ Vaccine. 

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • Called: The vaccBNT162b2 or Comirnaty, AKA’ Pfizer.’
  • Type of Vaccine: mRNA-based vaccine
  • Reported general efficacy: 95%
  • Administration: Given as 2 I.M. injections (IM/2)
  • How stored: stored frozen @ -70 C;
  • EUA Granted 11 December, 20207
  • Approved for use in 82 countries at the time of this report [11]

2. Moderna, Inc.*

Moderna is a company that focuses primarily on the use of mRNA to develop medicines, therapies, and vaccines to help treat a wide array of diseases. Since 2010, they have been working to advance the medical field using mRNA technology in various platforms. It only made sense that their mRNA COVID-19 vaccine be one of the first to obtain EUA. [25]

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • Vaccine mRNA-1273,
  • mRNA-based vaccine
  • 1%
  • IM/2
  • @ -20 C;
  • EUA Granted December 18, 2020 [18]
  • Approved for use in 45 countries and 14 ongoing trials in 3 different countries [11]

3. Janssen Pharmaceuticals, Inc.

Janssen Global Services, LLC is a pharmaceutical company of Johnson & Johnson Services, Inc. Janssen spends their attention concentrating on areas where they feel it can significantly impact. Areas such as immunology, vaccines, and infectious diseases, cancer research, and more are primary focuses. [26]

Johnson & Johnson* totes itself as being the “world’s largest and most broadly based healthcare company.” They want to provide healthcare globally that is both affordable and reachable by all. [27]

Jointly they developed:

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine aka JNJ-78436735 or Ad26.COV2.S
  • Non-replicating viral vector
  • 66%
  • IM/1
  • 2-8 C;
  • EUA Granted 27 February, 202117(p1)
  • At the initial start of writing, this vaccine was fully approved for use. However, as of April 20, 2021, the CDC28 has paused the use of the vaccine to investigate 6 or more cases of severe blood clots and low platelet levels. While currently under investigation in the U.S., they have decided to temporarily suspend its use. However, the European Union acknowledged the U.S.’s concerns but have not suspended use. [29]

EUA approved vaccines outside of the U.S.: in use in 1 or more countries

13 vaccines are approved worldwide. Vaccines #4-10 represent key vaccines approved for use in various countries. Together, with #1-3, they help cover a substantial portion of the globe and are alphabetically ordered. [5, 9, 11, 12, 14, 20, 30]

4. AstraZeneca*

AstraZeneca is a “global, science-led biopharmaceutical business.” [31] They develop innovative therapies used globally. They entered the COVID-19 vaccine race with a commitment to help to end the pandemic. [32]. They are working in conjunction with Oxford University and have trials currently ongoing in the United Kingdom.

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • COVID-19 AstraZeneca aka ChAdOx1, nCoV-19, AzD1222, Vaxzeveria, or Covishield;
  • Chimp adenovirus viral vector
  • 4%
  • IM/2
  • 2-8 C;
  • Currently in use in 65 countries with 24 ongoing trials in 15 different countries[11]
  • approved by WHO

5. Bharat Biotech

BharatBiotech is a biotech company responsible for India’s first in-house developed vaccine, developed in cooperation with the Indian Council for Medical Research’s National Institute of Virology.30 The company seeks to drive innovation with R&D of new bio-therapeutics and vaccine development, as they hope to help manage or eradicate illnesses.33 https://www.bharatbiotech.com/covaxin.html.

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • Covaxin, BBV152;
  • Whole-virus vero cell (inactivated vaccine);
  • 81%;
  • IM/2;
  • 2-8oC;
  • Currently being used in 6 countries with 5 clinical trials in 1 country [11]

6. CanSino Biological Inc.

CanSinoBIO, in collaboration with the Beijing Institute of Biotechnology, developed the first novel Chinese-produced COVID-19 vaccine.34 A Chinese biopharmaceutical company, CanSinoBIO, works to achieve advances in healthcare with R&D,  manufacturing advancements, and pioneering new vaccines for worldwide use. [35]

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • Convidicea, Ad5-nC0V
  • Novel Recombinant, adenovirus type 5 vector (viral vector), genetically engineered
  • IM/1 dose
  • In use in 5 countries with 6 trials in 6 countries [11]

7. Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology

The Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology, touted as one of the oldest research centers in Russia, founded in 1881, has developed Russia’s first COVID-19 Vaccine. The center has a special focus on infectious diseases both epidemiologically and creating various means to prevent illness or mitigate transmission and ill effects. [36]

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • Sputnik V, Gam-COVID-Vac, rAd26-S+rAd5-S
  • Produced as a collaboration with Acellena Contract Drug Research and Development and the Health Ministry of the Russian Federation
  • A non-replicating human recombinant adenovirus vector-based vaccine. It is unique from other viral vectors because it uses not one but two viral vectors as vehicles to transfer genetic material from a different virus into the human cell.37
  • 91% efficacy
  • IM/2 doses
  • Approved for use in 60 countries with 19 trials in 6 countries [11]

8. Federal Budgetary Research Institution State Research Center of Virology and Biotechnology AKA The Vector Institute

The Vector Institute represents a Russian government agency responsible for Russia’s second COVID-19 vaccine. It can be challenging to find information on this organization as the name varies depending on the reference. The center focuses on various means to address infectious diseases at all stages, from prevention to diagnosis.38 http://www.vector.nsc.ru/.

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

Also read: Top 15 COVID-19 Vaccine Startups Worldwide

9. Sinopharm

China National Pharmaceutical Group Co., Ltd., AKA Sinopharm, oversees a large healthcare conglomerate and includes 6 primary and over 1000 subsidiaries. Essentials for Sinopharm include R&D, drug development, and vaccine development. Reported to be the 6th largest vaccine manufacturer globally, they are a key provider for China’s National Vaccination Program. They are guided by the core value of “all for health, health for all.”[39]

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • BBIBP-CorV
  • A Vero cell inactivated vaccine
  • 3% efficacy
  • IM/2
  • 2-8oC
  • Currently approved in 35 countries with 6 trials ongoing in 7 countries [11]

10. Sinovac Biotech

Sinovac Biotech, Ltd., a Chinese company whose mission is to “supply vaccines to eliminate human diseases.” They focus on R&D through to commercialization of infectious disease vaccines, meeting needs that are unmet to date. [40]

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • CoronaVac
  • Formalin-inactivated, adjuvanted with Alum (vero cell)
  • 7%
  • IM/2
  • 2-8oC
  • Approved for use in 20 countries with 15 ongoing trials in 7 countries [11]

On the horizon: 5 promising examples of vaccines in various stages of clinical trials

The final five represent different vaccine platforms to provide samples of how broad the research field is. These demonstrate how expanded technology is being investigated to ensure adequate immunity development from a wide array of mechanisms moving forward. [5,9,11,12,14–20]

11. Curevac & GlaxoSmithKline* (GSK)

CureVac, AKA the RNA people® states that they are the “world’s first company to successfully harness mRNA for medical purposes.”41 Today with GSK, they are helping in the COVID-19 vaccine race. They are a German biopharmaceutical research company.

GSK

GSK describes itself as “a science-led global healthcare company with a special purpose: to help people do more, feel better, live longer.”42 They describe themselves as global leaders in R&D and producers of various medications, products, and vaccines. They focus on three aspects of human health: pharmaceuticals, vaccinations, and consumer healthcare. [42]

Together GSK and Curevac are developing a COVID-19 vaccine.

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • CVnCoV
  • An mRNA, multi-valent candidate vaccine
  • IM/2
  • Currently in phase IIb/III Trials

12. Inovio Pharmaceuticals, Inc. (Inovio)

Inovio is a biotech company whose goal is to use DNA medicines globally to save lives. They have created several of the first DNA-based vaccines, cancer therapies, and medications to reach clinical trials and be used globally.43

Because DNA technology is easily adapted and developed, it makes a good option for rapid vaccine development. They have partnered with various R&D and vaccine manufacturing groups from the University of Pennsylvania and the University of Texas, in the U.S., to partners in China and South Korea, England, and Australia. [44]

COVID-19 Vaccine highlights

  • INO-4800
  • DNA-Plasmid vaccine
  • ID/2 (*only one do date using I.D. administration)
  • Currently Phase II/III clinical trials;
  • @ Room temperature
    1. Currently, it is the only nucleic-acid-based (RNA or DNA) vaccine stable at room temperature.
    2. Further, it can be stored safely at room temperature for more than a year. This will allow for mass implementation and distribution in areas hard to reach vs. those with other vaccine storage needs. [45]

13. GSK* & Vir Biotechnology

Vir Biotechnology is working with GSK, discussed above. They focus their immunologic work on the prevention of infectious diseases by combining technologies. An American based “clinical-stage immunology company,” they pursue treatments for infectious diseases by identifying immune system weaknesses and developing effective strategies against them. [46]

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  1. VIR-7831, GSK4182136
  2. A plant-based adjuvant vaccine that uses human anti-SARS-CoV-2 monoclonal antibody47
  3. Potential to not only clear the virus from infected cells but even prevent entry into those cells48
  4. IM/2;
  5. In phase III trials

14. Novavax*

Novavax, a biotech company, specializes in improving global health through vaccine development. They focus on serious infectious diseases and new technologies. They developed a proprietary adjuvant, Matrix M, shown to be well tolerated in clinical trials and elicit an improved immune response that is used in a variety of their vaccines. [49]

Novavax’s COVID-19 vaccine is produced in cooperation with the Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI), which provides global partnerships to help create vaccinations for the future and today. [50]

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • NVX-CoV2373
  • Recombinant nanoparticle technology in insect cells and matrix M adjuvent14
  • Phase III Trials ongoing suggest 96.4% vs. original strain and 55.4% VS B.1.351 strains
  • IM/2
  • 2-8oC

15. Israel Institute for Biological Research (IIBR)

Founded in 1952, IIBR performs R&D in numerous fields with the ultimate goal of protecting the State of Israel from threats both biological and chemical. However, they expand their assistance globally with various contributions, including aiding in the polio vaccine development, explosive material detection kits, and vaccines and medications against multiple diseases. It is not surprising that they have entered the COVID-19 race. [51]

COVID-19 Vaccine Highlights

  • Brilife (IIBR-100)
  • Replicating viral vector (uses another virus that carries the genes of the COVID-19 virus) [52]; It uses the recombinant vesicular stomatitis virus (VSV) as the carrier [53]
  • Live-attenuated vaccine
  • IM
  • In phase II clinical trials

Additional Resources for live up-to-date vaccine tracking information

  1. https://covid19.trackvaccines.org/ – Live data
  2. https://www.raps.org/news-and-articles/news-articles/2020/3/covid-19-vaccine-tracker – Live Data
  3. https://www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/covid-19-vaccine-race
  4. https://ourworldindata.org/covid-vaccinations
  5. https://covid19.who.int/ Includes data on a variety of statistics, not just COVID-19 vaccinations
  6. https://covid-nma.com/vaccines/mapping/
  7. https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/#vaccinations (U.S. vaccination tracking information)
  8. https://covid19.trackvaccines.org/trials-vaccine-testing/#trial-phases – For information on the phases of clinical trials

Concluding thoughts

To ensure the global population reaches herd immunity, much still needs to be researched and addressed moving forward with R&D efforts related to vaccinations and the virus’s control. All factors taken separately and together will affect public health’s ability to combat the disease.

The vaccine race cannot be about who makes the most money or which country can purchase the largest number of vaccines. It cannot be which vaccine gets EUA approval first. Ultimately, what type of vaccine or groups of vaccines collectively will provide the best duration will need to be considered. If we hope to return to a better new normal, we must protect the globe’s population. We can do this by working together and using vaccines that are the safest, most effective, permit population access and ultimately lead to herd immunity. [5,54]

References

  1. World Health Organization (WHO). Weekly epidemiological update on COVID-19 – 6 April 2021. World Health Organization. Published April 6, 2021. Accessed April 10, 2021. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/weekly-epidemiological-update-on-covid-19—6-april-2021
  2. World Health Organization (WHO). Coronavirus disease (COVID-19): Herd immunity, lockdowns and COVID-19. World Health Organization. Published December 31, 2020. Accessed April 11, 2021. https://www.who.int/news-room/q-a-detail/herd-immunity-lockdowns-and-covid-19
  3. Andre FE, Booy R, Block H.L., et al. Vaccination greatly reduces disease, disability, death and inequity worldwide. Bull World Health Organ. 2008;86(2):140-146. doi:10.2471/BLT.07.040089
  4. Greenwood B. The contribution of vaccination to global health: past, present and future. Philos Trans R Soc B Biol Sci. 2014;369(1645). doi:10.1098/rstb.2013.0433
  5. Li Y, Tenchov R, Smoot J, Liu C, Watkins S, Zhou Q. A Comprehensive Review of the Global Efforts on COVID-19 Vaccine Development. ACS Cent Sci. Published online March 29, 2021:acscentsci.1c00120. doi:10.1021/acscentsci.1c00120
  6. Lurie N, Saville M, Hatchett R, Halton J. Developing Covid-19 Vaccines at Pandemic Speed. N Engl J Med. 2020;382(21):1969-1973. doi:10.1056/NEJMp2005630
  7. U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Fact Sheet for Healthcare Providers Administering Vaccine (Vaccination Providers) Emergency Use Authorization (EUA) of the Pfizer-BioNTech Covid-19 Vaccine to Prevent Coronavirus Disease 2019 (Covid-19). Published online January 28, 2021. Accessed April 10, 2021. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/pfizer-biontech-covid-19-vaccine#additional
  8. U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Moderna Covid-19 Vaccine: Emergency Use Authorization for Vaccines to Prevent COVID-19. Published online February 22, 2021. https://www.fda.gov/emergency-preparedness-and-response/coronavirus-disease-2019-covid-19/moderna-covid-19-vaccine#:~:text=On%20December%2018%2C%202020%2C%20the,SARS%2DCoV%2D2).
  9. World Health Organization (WHO). Draft landscape and tracker of COVID-19 candidate vaccines. WHO R&D Blueprint. Published April 6, 2021. Accessed April 8, 2021. https://www.who.int/publications/m/item/draft-landscape-of-covid-19-candidate-vaccines
  10. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). COVID-19 Vaccines for People at Increased Risk for Severe Illness from COVID-19. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published April 19, 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/recommendations/specific-groups/high-risk.html
  11. McGill University Interdisciplinary Initiative in Infection and Immunity (MI4). Vaccines – COVID19 Vaccine Tracker. Covid-19 Vaccine Tracker. Published April 11, 2021. Accessed April 11, 2021. https://covid19.trackvaccines.org/vaccines/
  12. Craven J. COVID-19 vaccine tracker. Regulatory Focus. Published April 8, 2021. Accessed April 10, 2021. https://www.raps.org/news-and-articles/news-articles/2020/3/covid-19-vaccine-tracker
  13. Gavi, The Vaccine Alliance. The COVID-19 vaccine race – weekly update. Gavi The Vaccine Alliance. Published April 7, 2021. Accessed April 10, 2021. https://www.gavi.org/vaccineswork/covid-19-vaccine-race
  14. Infectious Diseases Society of America (IDSA). Vaccines in Development. Published March 10, 2021. Accessed April 7, 2021. https://www.idsociety.org/covid-19-real-time-learning-network/vaccines/vaccines/
  15. U.S. Food & Drug Administration (FDA). Learn More About COVID-19 Vaccines From the FDA. U.S. Food & Drug Administration. Published March 24, 2021. Accessed March 31, 2021. https://www.fda.gov/consumers/consumer-updates/learn-more-about-covid-19-vaccines-fda
  16. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Information about the Pfizer-BioNTech COVID-19 Vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published March 4, 2021. Accessed April 5, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/Pfizer-BioNTech.html
  17. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Information about the J&J/Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published March 31, 2021. Accessed April 5, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/janssen.html
  18. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). Information about the Moderna COVID-19 Vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published April 5, 2021. Accessed April 5, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/different-vaccines/Moderna.html
  19. Shrotri M, Swinnen T, Kampmann B, Parker EPK. An interactive website tracking COVID-19 vaccine development. Lancet Glob Health. Published online March 2021. doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(21)00043-7
  20. World Health Organization (WHO). Status of COVID-19 Vaccines within WHO EUL/PQ evaluation process. Published online April 1, 2021. Accessed April 6, 2021. https://www.who.int/teams/regulation-prequalification/eul/covid-19
  21. American Academy of Family Physicians. COVID-19 Vaccine. Recent Outbreaks/COVID-19. Published March 15, 2021. Accessed April 6, 2021. https://www.aafp.org/family-physician/patient-care/current-hot-topics/recent-outbreaks/covid-19/covid-19-vaccine.html
  22. International Federation of Pharmaceutical Manufacturers & Associations (IFPMA). COVID-19 Vaccine Maker Pledge. IFPMA. Published September 8, 2020. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.ifpma.org/resource-centre/covid-19-vaccine-maker-pledge/
  23. Pfizer. Pfizer’s Core Values of Social Responsibility and Philanthropy |. Pfizer.com. Published 2021 2002. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.pfizer.com/purpose
  24. BioNTech SE. Our vision. BioNTech. Published 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.biontech.de/our-dna/vision
  25. Moderna, Inc. About Us: Leaders in mRNA Technology & Science. Moderna. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.modernatx.com/about-us
  26. Janssen Global Services, LLC. About Us. Janssen. Published April 20, 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.janssen.com/about
  27. Johnson & Johnson. About Johnson & Johnson. Johnson & Johnson. Published 2021 1997. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.jnj.com/about-jnj
  28. Centers for Disease Control & Prevention (CDC). Recommendation to Pause Use of Johnson & Johnson’s Janssen COVID-19 Vaccine. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Published April 20, 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/vaccines/safety/JJUpdate.html?ACSTrackingID=USCDC_2067-DM55262&ACSTrackingLabel=What%20to%20Do%20If%20You%20Received%20the%20J%26J%2FJanssen%20COVID-19%20Vaccine%20%7C%20COVID-19&deliveryName=USCDC_2067-DM55262
  29. Associated Press. E.U. regulator finds ‘possible link’ between Johnson & Johnson COVID-19 vaccine, blood clots. KTLA. Published April 20, 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://ktla.com/news/nationworld/european-union-regulator-finds-link-between-johnson-johnson-covid-19-vaccine-shot-and-blood-clots/
  30. Bharat Biotech. COVAXIN. Bharat Biotech’s Covaxin. Published 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.bharatbiotech.com/covaxin.html
  31. AstraZeneca. Our Company – AstraZeneca. AstraZeneca Global Site. Published 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.astrazeneca.com/our-company.html
  32. AstraZeneca. COVID-19 Information Hub. AstraZeneca’s COVID-19 Information Hub. Published 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.astrazeneca.com/covid-19.html
  33. Bharat Biotech. Vision & Mission – Bharat Biotech – A Leading Biotech Company. Bharat Biotech. Published 2019. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.bharatbiotech.com/vision.html
  34. CanSino Biologics. Convidicea Vaccine. Precision Vaccinations. Published April 22, 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/convidicea-vaccine
  35. CanSinoBIO. 康希诺生物 CanSinoBIO. CanSinoBIO Overview. Published February 2020. Accessed April 22, 2021. http://www.cansinotech.com/html/1//173/174/index.html
  36. The Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology. General Information. The Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology. Published 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.gamaleya.org/en/about/obshchaya-informatsiya/
  37. The Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology. Vaccine against COVID-19. The Gamaleya National Center of Epidemiology and Microbiology. Published 2021. Accessed April 12, 2021. https://www.gamaleya.org/en/research/vaktsina-protiv-covid-19/
  38. Vector. FBSI SSC VB “Vector” Rospotrebnadzor. Vector. Published 2021 2003. Accessed April 22, 2021. http://www.vector.nsc.ru/
  39. China National Pharmaceutical Group Corporation. Sinopharm. Sinopharm. Published 2015. Accessed April 22, 2021. http://www.sinopharm.com/1398.html
  40. Sinovac Biotech Ltd. SINOVAC. Sinovac. Published 2019 2001. Accessed April 22, 2021. http://www.sinovac.com/
  41. CureVac. CureVac, About U.S. CureVac The RNA People. Published 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.curevac.com/en/about-us/
  42. GlaxoSmithKline plc. GSK: About us. GSK. Published 2021 2001. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.gsk.com/en-gb/about-us/
  43. INOVIO Pharmaceuticals. Inovio Firsts. INOVIO Powering DNA Medicines. Published February 20, 2020. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.inovio.com/about-inovio/inovio-firsts/
  44. INOVIO Pharmaceuticals. Covid-19. INOVIO Powering DNA Medicines. Published April 8, 2020. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.inovio.com/our-focus-serving-patients/covid-19/
  45. Precision Vaccinations. INO-4800 COVID-19 Vaccine. Precision Vaccinations. Published April 21, 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/ino-4800-covid-19-vaccine
  46. Vir Biotechnology, Inc. Taking the science in a bold new direction. Vir Biotechnology | A World Without Infectious Disease. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.vir.bio/
  47. Precision Vaccinations. VIR-7831 Antibody. Precision Vaccinations. Published April 8, 2021. Accessed April 11, 2021. https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/vir-7831-antibody
  48. Vir Biotechnology, Inc. Vir Biotechnology and GSK Announce VIR-7831 Reduces Hospitalization and Risk of Death in Early Treatment of Adults with COVID-19. Intrado GlobeNewsWire. Published March 11, 2021. Accessed April 22, 2021. https://www.globenewswire.com/news-release/2021/03/11/2190921/0/en/Vir-Biotechnology-and-GSK-Announce-VIR-7831-Reduces-Hospitalization-and-Risk-of-Death-in-Early-Treatment-of-Adults-with-COVID-19.html
  49. Novovax. Learn about Novavax. Novavax. Published 2021. Accessed April 23, 2021. https://www.novavax.com/about-us
  50. Coalition for Epidemic Preparedness Innovations (CEPI). CEPI | New Vaccines For A Safer World. CEPI. Published 2021. Accessed April 23, 2021. https://cepi.net/
  51. The Israel Institute for Biological, Chemical and Environmental Sciences (IIBR). Who We are. IIBR: Who We Are. Accessed April 23, 2021. https://iibr.gov.il/Pages/Who-We-are.aspx
  52. McGill Vaccine Tracker Team J. About Vaccines – COVID19 Vaccine Tracker. Covid-19 Vaccine Tracker. Published 2021. Accessed April 23, 2021. https://covid19.trackvaccines.org/how-do-vaccines-work/#types
  53. Precision Vaccinations. BriLife Coronavirus Vaccine. Precision Vaccinations. Published April 14, 2021. Accessed April 23, 2021. https://www.precisionvaccinations.com/vaccines/brilife-coronavirus-vaccine
  54. Bloom DE, Cadarette D, Ferranna M, Hyer RN, Tortorice DL. ANALYSIS: How New Models Of Vaccine Development For COVID-19 Have Helped Address An Epic Public Health Crisis. Health Aff (Millwood). 2021;40(3):410-418. doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.02012

 


Kolabtree helps businesses worldwide hire experts on demand. Our freelancers have helped companies publish research papers, develop products, analyze data, and more. It only takes a minute to tell us what you need done and get quotes from experts for free.


Share.

About Author

Erica Tramuta-Drobnis is an academic, scientific and technical freelance writer. She works with clients to develop literature reviews, systematic reviews, peer review journal articles and can write in various formats, including scientific publications, blogs, and more. She has a combination of 20 years of experience in veterinary medicine, disaster preparedness and response, and over three years of public health experience. She has research experience, clinical veterinary experience and has recently published a scholarly article in public health.

Leave A Reply

Trusted freelance experts, ready to help you with your project


The world's largest freelance platform for scientists  

No thanks, I'm not looking to hire right now