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I am a Scientific writer who has specialized in the field of Molecular Biology and Biochemistry.

Profile Summary
Subject Matter Expertise
Writing Technical Writing
Research Systematic Literature Review, Secondary Data Collection
Data & AI Statistical Analysis
Work Experience

Assistant laboratory expert


April 2019 - September 2019

Assistant Laboratory expert

Kenya Medical Research Institute

April 2019 - September 2019


Bsc Molecular and Cellular Biology

Kenyatta University

September 2016 - December 2019

  • Certification details not provided.
Abstract. The main aim of the research project was to determine the stability of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. In order to determine its stability, different substituent groups were used in the furan ring. Use of different ionic liquids lead to obtaining different by products which can be well observed. Kinetic study is also done to check for 5-hydroxymethylfurfural decomposition over time. The research also gave a pathway to try determining which conditions 5-hydroxymethylfurfural does not decompose fast. Introduction. The bare fact that 5-hydroxymethylfurfural has many functions in the modern society has made many scientists venture into research on the fluorocarbon. Apart from being a furan ring system 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is also an aromatic aldehyde and aromatic alcohol. HMF being a biomass compound is very renewable and found in plenty due to its presence in many natural compounds like onions, tomatoes and other plant residues. Furfural compounds are extracted from dehydrated carbohydrate like fructose and the process converts hexoses to furfural compounds such as 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. 5-hydroxymethylfurfural has been majorly termed as a sleeping giant previously by scientists. This is because, with the right experiments carried out on it, 5-hydroxymethylfurfural can be changed to form very highly valued chemical components. How stable is 5-hydroxymethylfurfural? According to previous research activities, the packing of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is a great hinderance in its production. This is because 5-hydroxymethylfurfural is chemically unstable and therefore makes it difficult to be stored. The compound should not be exposed to any form of impurities as this may lead to faster aging of the compound which limits its storage. Therefore, all experiments should be carried out with caution. Furan Ring reactions. In the research done levulinic acid and formic acid are among other polymeric substances that occurs through the cleavage of the furan ring. The cleavage occurs in the presence of a medium that is acidic. Recently, as proposed by Horvat, HMF has bee through different mechanisms which is mainly in two pathways. The reactions depend on the amount of water being added in the reacting medium. The first reaction of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural results in the formation of the product 2,5-dioxo-3-hexenal after reaction. The substances undergo decomposition and there is formation of Formic acids and other Levulinic acids. The other pathway is mostly explaining the formation of polymers. Formation of 2,5-bis- (hydroxymethyl) tetra-hydrofuran is mainly due to the reduction of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural. 1-hydroxy-2,5-hexenedione is also formed when there is a catalytic hydrogenation of HMF where platinum and ruthenium is present. There is also a subsequent formation of 1,2,5-hexenetriol. Furfural undergoes adding of some ammonia. However, HMF decomposes underneath similar conditions but leads to the creation of polymers. HMF at times reacts to ammonia derivatives and this leads to the formation of oximes, phenylhydrazone, semioxamazone and azine. Schiff bases can also be formed when HMF reacts with aromatic amines. Aniline and β-naphthylamine when reacted with HMF leads to the formation of 5- hydroxymethylfurfurylidene-N-phenyl-N-methylimminium which is a cation and is also observed with N-methylaniline in ethanol. When HMF is condensed with urea, it leads to the formation of 5-hydroxymethylfurfurylidene-bis-urea. When HMF is treated with the substance methyl aminoformate it leads to the formation of dimethyl-5-hydroxymethylfurfurylidene-bis-(N-aminoformate). The reaction between HMF and citric acid leads to formation of citric acid tris- [N-(5-hydroxy methyl) furfurylidene] hydrazide as described by Blanksma. 2-(5-hydroxymethylfurfuryl)-benzothiazole is formed as a result of a reaction between HMF and 2-aminothiophenol1. HMF mainly reacts with compounds that have a methylene grp. Perkin condensation is carried out to have enough 5-acetoxymethylfurfurylideneacetic acid. HMF is involved in many reactions with many esters. In the presence piperidine which are mainly catalytic, HMF reacts to form 5-hydroxymethyl- furfury lidene acetic acid. In order to obtain 5-hydroxymethylfurfurylideneacetophenone, there must be a Claisen-Schmidt condensation of HMF in the presence of acetone, anthrone, barbituric acid and acetophenone. This compound the undergoes an oxidation reaction to form 5-carboxy and 5-formyl. Pyrimidines and furan substituted pyrazoles are yield in the condensation reaction Claisen-Schmidt condensation reacted with guanidine and N-substituted hydrazine of the α and β subunits of the unsaturated ketones. The combination of 5-hydroxymethylfufural produced from glucose residues is done when water is added, 1-butyl- 3 -methyl imidazolium chloride (Bmim) Cl) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). The major catalyst for the reaction is metal (III) chloride. The decreasing order of the reacting substances influences the produce of HMF after the reaction of the substances. The highest yield of HMF is recorded when there is addition of CrCl3·6H2O, then the addition of AlCl3 and then FeCl3·6H2O into the reacting solution. The effects of β-CD contribute to understanding effects of the substance cyclodextrin on the interaction with the IL substrates which is done at the specific binding sites (Caes, B. R, 2013). This is majorly based upon property of a reacting solution and functions of the β - CD and IL complex. Using 1-ethyl-3-methylimidozolium chloride, (EMIM) (Br), (BMIM) (l), (EMIM) (Cl), 1-butyl-1-methyllpyrrolidinium chloride, (BMPYR) (Cl), and there are numerous other IL complexes for different reactions., the temperature solubility of the complexes is also determined. The major characteristic that was investigated here mainly consist of the effects of the type of the IL which mainly constitute of different anions and cations. There are also different intermolecular interactions between different solvent molecules with combination of the IL complexes with β - CD and β - CD which has been fully purified. The additional multiplexes of β -CD with diverse ILs and other diluters are conversed in detail. The likelihood of also cumulative the level of solubility of β - CD complexes in water by use of the IL is also projected. In addition, the different mechanism of additional complexes to the IL solutions, the guest, is also deliberated. Carboxylic groups can be well obtained after conversion of formyl group. This procedure also applies to the formyl group on MHF. The reaction that leads to the conversion between the two substrates is very selective and at specific times it may lead to the formation of 5-hydroxymethyl- 2 -furan caboxylic acid is then the select product. Oxidation reaction of MHF Oxidation of HMF with oxides from silver was done to realize this change. A combination of two oxides silver and also copper (II) oxides with oxygen in the occurrence of a few metals referred to as noble metals which act as catalysts have also been used for the oxidation process which is very selective of HMF. J. A. and his colleague Shanks, 2013 explains that the corrosion of HMF to 2, 5- furan-dicarboxylic acid 40 has been explained by some scientists who cast-off oxygen and the noble metals as catalysts in their experimental reactions. Other scientists used oxides of nitrogen and nitric acid to get a diacid 40 after the reaction. HMF has also been oxidized with nitric acid by scientists like El-Hajj44 and Cottier100 who claimed that the reactions were selective and they supported that the diacid was the select product, Cottier and fellow mates found out that the oxidation of HMF in the presence of nitric acid directed to 5-formyl- 2-furoncarboxylic acid 41 formation and a diacyl. Diacid and 5-formyl- 2 -furan carboxylic acid 41 formation was to be resilient to corrosion reactions under these circumstances of the experiment. The ratio of the formation of the two by products was dependent on the conditions in which the reaction occurred. The scientists tested aqueous solutions and mixed solutions for instance in the case of DMSO and acetic acid and they studied their chemical behavior in the presence of a catalyzing agents and without a catalyst and the level of influence ultra sound had on the reaction and they detected the formation of the two products. According to Cottier and fellow workers, the formyl acid is very resistant to oxidation reactions in acidic conditions. Reduction of MHF. In preparing polymeric substrates, resins and false fibers, 2,5-Bis- (hydroxy methyl) furon is a composite that has a countless field of applications. It is manufactured by reducing of formyl group from reactions catalyzed by nickel, platinum oxide, copper chromite and cobalt oxide which are noble metals according to Torres, Y., Dumesic, J. A. and Shanks, 2013. The presence of catalytic hydrogenation of HMF in the occurrence of some noble metals in an aqueous solution was investigated. The reaction between copper or platinum-catalysed, there was a resultant 2, 5-bis- (hydroxyl methyl) furan as a major biproduct. The uses of palladium and nickel led to hydrogen formation on the furan ring in the reaction. 2 ,5-bis- (hydroxymethyl) tetrahydrofuran 21 was the main product obtained. Decomposition of HMF. Levulinic acid which is accessed only by the acid catalyzing and degradation of biomass, is found in a variety of sources especially in the bulk parts of the greens. With a report on the kinetic study done, this is one of the very essential stages in the change of biomass to the Levulinic acid residues which is explained in the reaction of 5 -hydroxyl methyl furfural (HMF) being converted to levulinic acid. The kinetic tests carried out were carried out at the temperature window of 98 degrees to 181 degrees Celsius, an acid concentration amid 0.05–1 M, and the set initial concentrations of HMF should be amid 0.1 and 1 Mol (Caes, B. R, 2013). The final highest yield of HMF was 94 % (mol), which was obtained at the earlier concentration of MHF being 0.1 Mol and 1 Mol sulphuric acid concentrations. The yield of Levulinic acid at full HMF concentration is not dependent on factors such as temperature. Power law approach was used to ensure that there is an empirical rate expression of undesired humin amounts. Conclusion. With the presence of furfuric residues extraction methods by the current extraction techniques, many greens can be utilized whereby their carbohydrate forms containing HMF carbon be utilized to make the very important Sleeping Giant be of great value in the society. Major techniques are still being learnt which can now allow HMF to be extracted with ease and stored for long periods of time without being degraded in the presence of any impurities. REFERENCES. Caes, B. R., Palteb, M. J. and Raines, R. T., Organocatalytic conversion of cellulose into a platform chemical. Chemical Science, 4, 196-199 (2013). Combs, E., Cinlar, B., Pagan-Torres, Y., Dumesic, J. A. and Shanks, B. H., Influence of alkali and alkaline earth metal salts on glucose conversion to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in an aqueous system. Cat. Comm., 30, 1-4 (2013). Integrated chemo-enzymatic production of 5-hydroxymethylfurfural from glucose. ChemSusChem, 6, 997-1000 (2013).