如何应对COVID-19大流行期间的压力和焦虑。

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Zoya Marinova, 自由科学作家 在Kolabtree上,写了如何应对COVID-19大流行期间的压力。 

The coronavirus disease (COVID-19) has rapidly spread worldwide, since the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) first emerged in China in December 2019. The fast spread of the disease, its severe course in a subset of patients, and the lack of a vaccine and specific medications necessitated unprecedented public 健康 measures. What effects does the COVID-19 pandemic have on emotional wellbeing and how to cope with them?

COVID-19的症状和传播

The symptoms of COVID-19 may develop 2-14 days after the exposure to the virus and may range from mild to severe. They may include fever, cough, sore throat, shortness of breath, unexplained loss of taste or smell, chills with shaking, headache, and muscle aches. [1]

COVID-19大流行对情绪的影响是什么?

The unprecedented public health measures due to the COVID-19 pandemic have led to changes in the daily routines and social isolation of numerous individuals. Financial concerns and uncertainty about the future have also affected many. In combination, these factors may cause significant emotional distress, and the reactions to this unprecedented situation vary greatly. Individuals may experience fear, irritability, difficulties concentrating, exacerbation of chronic medical conditions, disruption in appetite, or insomnia.[2] In a recent study on 1210 respondents from 194 Chinese cities, over 50% of the participants assessed the psychological effects of the COVID-19 outbreak as severe or moderate. Moreover, a substantial number of respondents reported moderate to severe depressive symptoms (16.5%), 焦虑 symptoms (28.8%), or stress levels (8.1%).[3] 威胁感和不确定性是当前形势下的一个重要因素,两者都是造成痛苦程度的原因[4]。

如何应对COVID-19大流行期间的压力?

管理好信息流,做好防范措施。 In a stressful situation, avoiding compulsive checking of the news, especially during vulnerable times of day such as before bedtime, may help you relax.5 但是,掌握相关的健康信息,并遵循明确的预防措施,对减轻不测感也很重要[3]。

保持日常的生活习惯。 保持每天的例行公事也可以帮助减少不确定感,为日常生活带来更多的可预测性。 

实行自我保健。 A healthy diet, enough sleep, and physical 活动 are especially important during a stressful and uncertain time.[5] 即使是适度的身体活动也会对情绪产生积极影响,有助于缓解情绪困扰[6]。

与亲人保持(虚拟)联系。 与亲人保持联系,即使是通过视频或电话和电子邮件,也可以在这个充满挑战的时刻提供一种相互支持和保证的感觉。社会支持可能是帮助处理危机的重要资源。

参考文献:

  1. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/symptoms-testing/symptoms.html.
  2. Pfefferbaum B, North CS.心理健康和Covid-19大流行病。 New Engl J Med.2020年,4月13日。[Epub ahead of print].
  3. Wang CPan RWan X谭宇徐立Ho CSHo RC. Immediate psychological responses and associated factors during the initial stage of the 2019 coronavirus disease (COVID-19) epidemic among the 一般 population in China. Int J Environ Res Public Health.2020;17:pii:E1729.
  4. Freeston MH, Tiplady A, Mawn L, Bottesi G, Thwaites S. Towards a model of uncertainty distress in the context of coronavirus (Covid-19). PsyArXiv. 2020. https://doi.org/10.31234/osf.io/v8q6m.
  5. 美国心理学协会。 https://www.apa.org/helpcenter/stress-uncertainty.
  6. von Berens Å, Fielding RA, Gustafsson T, Kirn D, Laussen J, Nydahl M, Reid K, Travison TG, Zhu H, Cederholm T, Koochek A. Effect of exercise and nutritional supplementation on health-related quality of life and mood in older adults: the VIVE2 randomized controlled trial. BMC Geriatr. 2018;18:286. 
  7. Parks V. The critical role of social capital during the COVID-19 pandemic: lessons from disaster research.2020年4月16日。https://egrove.olemiss.edu/population_brief/2/。

 


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